The Rapture
By Norman Manzon

Prefatory note: 
Is the Rapture what is meant by the Second Coming? Not at all? The first stage of it? Please see Now to the Second Coming - Introduction for a discussion.

I. What Is the Rapture?

The two key passages on the Rapture are 1 Corinthians 15:50-53 and 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18.


50. Now I say this, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 51. Behold, I tell you a mystery; we will not all sleep, but we will all be changed, 52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet; for the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. 53. For this perishable must put on the imperishable, and this mortal must put on immortality.

~ 1 Corinthians 15:50-53 ~


13. But we do not want you to be uninformed, brethren, about those who are asleep, so that you will not grieve as do the rest who have no hope. 14. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so God will bring with Him those who have fallen asleep in Jesus. 15. For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive and remain until the coming of the Lord, will not precede those who have fallen asleep. 16. For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. 17. Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we shall always be with the Lord. 18. Therefore comfort one another with these words.

~ 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 ~


Let us begin by examining some of the text.


Asleep, used in both passages, is a euphemism for the state of those who have died, and is used in this manner in both Testaments by those who believed in the resurrection because of the obvious parallel between resurrection from death and awakening from sleep. For example, in Matthew 9:24, Jesus referred to the synagogue official's daughter as being asleep before He resurrected her, and in John 11:11, to Lazarus as being asleep before He resurrected him, who had been in the tomb for four days (verse 17).


Caught up, in 1 Thessalonians 4:17, is translated from the Greek harpazo. It is the same word used in Acts 8:39, where the Spirit of the Lord snatched Philip away. The word rapture is derived from the Latin raptus, which itself is derived from harpazo, and means "to snatch up or away" and other similar meanings. Therefore, although the English word rapture is not found in Scripture, it has come to identify the event plainly described in the above passages.


Now as to the meaning of clouds and air. It is reasonable to take air literally. After all, the Lord descend[ed] from heaven to catch up believers from the Earth to meet the Lord in the air and bring [them] with Him to Heaven, and literal air exists between Earth and Heaven. What about clouds? At times, Scripture uses clouds to refer to the clouds of the air, and at other times, to the Shechinah Glory cloud, as in Solomon's dedication of the Temple: then the house, the house of the LORD, was filled with a cloud, so that the priests could not stand to minister because of the cloud, for the glory of the LORD filled the house of God (2 Chronicles 5:13-14. Also, most likely, in Luke 21:27 and Revelation 1:7). Albert Barnes, in his Notes on the Bible, points out that what is usually rendered "in the clouds" has no definite article in the Greek, which may indicate that they will be caught up "in such numbers, and in such grouping as to resemble clouds," and that some have translated it that way. Literal clouds? Clouds of Glory? Clouds of saints? All things considered, even though it is reasonable to believe that Jesus will meet the saints in the literal air, there doesn't seem to be a way to definitively determine which kind of clouds are referred to in the Thessalonians passage. 


Now, to summarize the key points of the Rapture: At one point yet future, the Lord Jesus will descend from Heaven into the atmosphere. Then, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye (twinkling. Gr. rhipe, rhee-pay'. A quick movement), He will resurrect those who have died in Christ, that is, deceased Church Age believers, into glorified, immortal, imperishable, heavenly bodies. An instant later, the bodies of those in Christ who are alive at that moment will likewise be translated or transformed into heavenly bodies, and will be caught up together with them in (the) clouds to meet the Lord in the air to always be with the Lord from that time forth. Though all of the events from the descent of the Lord through the catching up of the saints into Heaven may be thought of as the Rapture, the actual catching up of the saints is the Rapture proper.


One thing we must note: Neither the passages we've already reviewed nor any other passage shows any indication that the Rapture is to be taken symbolically or allegorically. Scripture straightforwardly presents it as a literal event involving literal resurrections and translations and instant bodily removal of the saints to meet the Lord in the air.

II. The Timing of the Rapture

There is no passage that tell us exactly when the Rapture will occur. In fact, Jesus declared, But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone (Matthew 24:36); but there are passages that locate it relative to other events or periods of time.

A. Prophetic Placement in the Feasts of Israel

In Leviticus 23 and elsewhere, God enjoined Israel under the Law to observe seven annual feasts, each of which carries prophetic significance, and which together constitute a blueprint for God's plan from Calvary to the Millennial Kingdom. They are divided into spring and summer festivals with a significant summer hiatus between. Here they are in summary.


The Spring Festivals

1. Passover or Pesach (Leviticus 23:5)
Passover is prophetic of the crucifixion of Jesus, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world (John 1:29). For Christ our Passover also has been crucified (1 Corinthians 5:7b).

2. Unleavened Bread or Chag HaMatzot (Leviticus 23:6-8)
Unleavened Bread speaks of the sinlessness of the sacrifice of the Lamb of God. Clean out the old leaven so that you may be a new lump, just as you are in fact unleavened. For Christ our Passover also has been sacrificed (1 Corinthians 5:7).

3. Firstfruits or Chag HaBikurim (Leviticus 23:9-14)
Firstfruits is prophetic of the resurrection of Jesus. But now Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who are asleep (1 Corinthians 15:20).

4. Pentecost or Shavuot (Leviticus 23:15-21)
Pentecost is prophetic of the formation of the church. Part of the ceremony consisted of the simultaneous offering of two leavened (sinful) loaves before the Lord (Leviticus 23:17). On the Day of Pentecost in Acts 2, the Spirit baptized two sinful “loaves” into one body: For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Gentiles (1 Corinthians 12:13) that He might make the two into one new man (Ephesians 2:15).


The Summer Hiatus

After prescribing the four spring festivals and before prescribing the three fall festivals to begin four months later, the Lord declared, When you reap the harvest of your land, moreover, you shall not reap to the very corners of your field nor gather the gleaning of your harvest; you are to leave them for the needy and the alien. I am the LORD your God (Leviticus 23:22).


This seems completely out of context. What was the Lord up to here? Listen to what Jesus said to His disciples: Do you not say, “There are yet four months, and then comes the harvest”? Behold, I say to you, lift up your eyes and look on the fields, that they are white for harvest (John 4:35).

Passover, Unleavened Bread, Firstfruits and Pentecost have all been fulfilled, and now is the season for us, Jesus' disciples, to make disciples of all the nations (Matthew 28:19) and thereby bring in the harvest for Him. We see, then, that the four month summer hiatus is also prophetic and has its fulfillment in the sequence of events from Calvary to the Kingdom. It is prophetic of the Church Age. (See also the Parable of the Sower: Matthew 13:3-9, Mark 4:3-9.)


The Fall Festivals

5. Trumpets or Yom T'ruah (Leviticus 23:23-25)
At some point after the Babylonian captivity (586-516 B.C.), the holiday came to be called Rosh HaShanah, the Head of the New Year, because of the belief that God created the heavens and the earth on the first of the month of Tishrei; so although the biblical new year begins in the month of Nisan (Abib) (Exodus 12:2), the fourteenth day of which Is Passover (Leviticus 23:5), Rosh HaShanah is recognized as the first day of the civil year in Israel today even though it is six months away from the biblical first day.


The only biblical requirement for the keeping of the Day of Trumpets is the blowing of the shofar, the ram’s horn. Scripture gives no reason for it - but does the blowing of trumpets ring a bell in regard to the Rapture? 1 Corinthians 15:52: the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable. 1 Thessalonians 4:16: For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. We see, then, that Trumpets is prophetic of the Rapture, and in the sequence of prophetic events, it occurs after the Church Age.


6. Day of Atonement or Yom Kippur (Leviticus 23:27)
The Day of Atonement is not a feast, but a day of solemnity in which all Israelites were to afflict their souls for their sinfulness. A goat was to be sacrificed, and its blood brought by the high priest into the holy of holies as an offering for the sins of the people. A second goat was then driven into the wilderness, symbolically carrying Israel’s sins away. Leviticus 16:10: But the goat, on which the lot fell to be the scapegoat, shall be presented alive before the LORD, to make an atonement with him, and to let him go for a scapegoat into the wilderness. (Cf. Leviticus 16:1-34)

The removal of Israel’s sins will be actualized at the end of the Great Tribulation when all Jews who survive Satan’s most virulent attempt to annihilate them (afflicting their bodies as well as souls) will receive Jesus as their Messiah, fulfilling the key provision of the New Covenant that God made with them: they will all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them (Jeremiah 31:34), the basis of Paul’s declaration in Romans 11:26, all Israel will be saved. (Also Zechariah 12:10, 13:1.) The fulfillment of the Day of Atonement, then, is the Great Tribulation, the time of Jacob's trouble (Jeremiah 30:7 ASV), the central purpose of which is the salvation of all Israel, meaning all Israelites alive at that time.


We see, then, most significantly, that the Rapture takes place at the end of the Church Age and before the Great Tribulation. But to complete our picture of the prophetic significance of the Feasts, we'll take a look at the seventh and final feast.


7. Tabernacles, Booths or Chag HaSukkot (Leviticus 23:33-44)
Of the first coming of Jesus, John tells us, the Word became flesh, and dwelt (Greek. tented, tabernacled) among us. Of the presence of the Lord with His people in the New Heavens and New Earth in the Eternal Ages after the Kingdom period, he tells us, Behold, the tabernacle of God is among men, and He will dwell among them (Revelation 21:3). Note how He is identified with the tabernacle. Paul and Peter likewise refer to their own bodies as tabernacles (2 Corinthians 5:1; 2 Peter 1:13-14 [ASV]). It is clear, then, that whenever the Lord dwells bodily with His people, He tabernacles with them. And indeed, the Lord does return to Earth to tabernacle with His people Israel, the glorified church saints, the pre-church saints and those who come to faith during the Great Tribulation,3 as it is the salvation of all Israel at the end of Yom Kippur that triggers His return (Hosea 5:15; Matthew 23:39). Zechariah 14:16 tells us that, during the Kingdom, Then it will come about that any who are left of all the nations that went against Jerusalem will go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and to celebrate the Feast of Booths. Indeed, they will celebrate of the Feast of Booths or Tabernacles in the presence of the Him who is the fulfillment of the Feast of Tabernacles.


To return to our main point, the placement of the Feast of Trumpets between the summer hiatus and the Day of Atonement is powerful proof that the Rapture will take place at the end of the Church Age and before the Great Tribulation.

B. Timing in Great Tribulation Passages

Some representative passages:


1 Thessalonians 1:9-10
9. For they themselves report . . . how you . . . 10. wait for His Son from heaven, whom He raised from the dead, that is Jesus, who rescues us from the wrath to come.


Wrath is one of the terms used in Scripture to refer to the Great Tribulation. It does not refer to Hell or the Lake of Fire in the passage; no believer is in jeopardy of being sent to either,4 and the thrust of the letter has to with the Great Tribulation, not Hell or the Lake of Fire.


Paul was pleased that the Thessalonians were wait[ing] for [God's] Son from heaven, whom He raised from the dead, that is Jesus, who rescues us from the wrath to come. It is obvious that the Thessalonians were waiting for deliverance before the Tribulation began, and we know that the Rapture is the deliverance that they were waiting for because in 4:13-18, Paul answered a concern that they had about the Rapture, namely, what happens to believers who die before it takes place. So this passage likewise shows that the Rapture will occur before the Tribulation.


1 Thessalonians 5:9
Verses 1-10 are set in the context of the Tribulation; and in verse 9, Paul assures the Thessalonians unequivocally that God has not destined us for wrath. Again, no Church Age believer is destined for the Great Tribulation. Of necessity, then, the Rapture must occur before the Tribulation.


2 Thessalonians 2:1-4
Paul described the Rapture in his first letter to the Thessalonians; but some had, since that time, become concerned that the Tribulation had already begun because of persecutions that they had endured (1 Thessalonians 2:14; 2 Thessalonians 1:4,6). In 2 Thessalonians 2, Paul responds to that concern:

1. Now we request you, brethren, with regard to the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, 2. that you not be quickly shaken from your composure or be disturbed either by a spirit or a message or a letter as if from us, to the effect that the day of the Lord has come. 3. Let no one in any way deceive you, for it will not come unless the apostasy comes first, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction, 4. who opposes and exalts himself above every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, displaying himself as being God.


In this context, the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ obviously refers to the Lord's coming in the clouds for the Rapture, not to His return to Earth, a subsequent event. In verses 2-4, Paul assures the Thessalonians that the Tribulation will not begin until anti-Christ is revealed. He had not been revealed at the time of Paul's writing, nor has he yet been revealed because Daniel 9:27 informs us that he will be revealed when he signs a seven-year covenant of peace with Israel, and no such treaty has yet been signed. In other words, the passage says that the church will be gather[ed] together to Him at the Rapture before anti-Christ is revealed - before the Great Tribulation.


Revelation 3:9-10

9. Behold, I will cause those of the synagogue of Satan, who say that they are Jews and are not, but lie - I will make them come and bow down at your feet, and make them know that I have loved you. 10. Because you have kept the word of My perseverance, I also will keep you from the hour of testing, that hour which is about to come upon the whole world, to test those who dwell on the earth.


Who say that they are Jews and are not may either be taken literally, just as many through the centuries have said that they are Jews and are not, (e.g., British Israelites) or it may mean literal Jews who are not fulfilling their calling as Jews by believing in their Messiah, Jesus, as in Romans 2:28-29 as understood in the context of verses 14-29, particularly verse 17. In any case, those who have kept the word of My perseverance are distinguished from the obvious unbelievers referred to in verse 9, and the Lord promises that He will keep them from the hour of testing, that hour which is about to come upon the whole world, to test those who dwell on the earth. He did not say that He will snatch them out of the Great Tribulation, but keep them from it, necessitating a pre-Tribulation Rapture.


The Structure of the Book of Revelation
Revelation 1-3 deals with church events prior to the Tribulation, and 19-22 deals with events involving the church beginning with the Second Coming of the Lord from Heaven with His church; but the church is not so much as mentioned in chapters 6-18, the chapters dealing with the Great Tribulation. Where was the church during the Tribulation? In Heaven with the Lord, having gotten there by means of the Rapture prior to the Tribulation.

C. Timing Relative to the 70 A.D. Destruction of Jerusalem

In Luke 21:28, Yeshua said to His disciples, But when these things begin to take place, straighten up and lift up your heads, because your redemption is drawing near. This redemption is the same as the redemption of the body in Romans 8:23 and the day of redemption in Ephesians 4:30, namely, the Rapture.


But what things? The main body of this (Olivet) discourse (Matthew 24-25; Mark 13; Luke 21:5-6) consists of Jesus' answers to three questions that His disciples asked: Tell us, when will these things happen? and what will be the sign of Your coming, and of the end of the age (Matthew 24:3b)? To paraphrase,

"What will be the sign . . .

1. of the destruction of Jerusalem (cf. Matthew 24:1-2),
2. of Your Second Coming, and
3. of the end of the world as we know it before the Messianic or Millennial Kingdom?" (Matthew 24:3)


But when will these things begin to take place? Chronologically, the first of the three events was the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 A.D. In addition, and significantly, Yeshua opened the discourse by saying of the temple, Truly I say to you, not one stone here will be left upon another, which will not be torn down (Matthew 24:2). His reply did not include the preliminary events of the siege of Jerusalem, which began in 66 A.D., nor on the flight of the believers which He commanded once the city became besieged (Luke 21:20-21), but on the actual destruction of the temple and the city, which was God's judgment on Israel for rejecting Him (Matthew 23:37-39). We can conclude, then, that what He was saying was that the Rapture could take place any time after the 70 A.D. destruction of Jerusalem.

D. Timing Relative to the Present Moment

First some verses, then conclusions:


In John 21:22, Yeshua said to Peter of John, If I want him to remain until I come, what is that to you? He didn't say that He would come while John was still alive, but He could have come between the destruction of Jerusalem and the death of John.


In John 14:2-3, The Lord told His disciples, 2. In My Father's house are many dwelling places; if it were not so, I would have told you; for I go to prepare a place for you. 3. If I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to Myself, that where I am, there you may be also. Before the Lord comes to Rapture His church, He must complete the dwellings places for all church saints, and only He knows when they are complete.

Romans 13:12: The night is almost gone, and the day is near.


James 5:8: The coming of the Lord is near.


Philippians 4:5b: The Lord is near.

One meaning of the words for near in the previous three verses is approaching, which is consistent with the way a number of translations have it: draweth nigh, or draws near.


The Lord says three times in Revelation 22, I am coming quickly (verses 7,12 and 20). According to Strong, one possible translation of quickly is (by surprise) suddenly


1 Thessalonians 1:9-10: 9. For they themselves report . . . how you . . . 10. wait for His Son from heaven, whom He raised from the dead, that is Yeshua, who rescues us from the wrath to come.


Other verses exhorting believers to wait for our resurrection, glorification, and our hope of righteousness in state as well as in present standing are Romans 8:25 and Galatians 5:5. In all three of these verses, the Greek word for wait means to eagerly wait.


In light of these possible translations and the fact that the Rapture has not occurred in the more than nineteen hundred years since these scriptures were written, it seems reasonable to conclude the following:

1. The intended meaning was not that the Rapture was near, or was to be coming soon (a minority translation instead of quickly or swiftly), but that it was approaching.


2. When it will occur, it will occur suddenly - yes, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye!

3. Based on John 21:22, even before the Lord revealed that the destruction of Jerusalem must occur before the Rapture, He wanted His saints from very early in the Church Age to realize that the Rapture could occur at any time, that it is imminent.

E. The Timing of the Rapture: Conclusion

The Rapture could have occurred immediately after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. Relative to the present moment, it will occur after the Lord has completed the dwelling places for His church saints. It will mark the very end of the Church Age and will occur before the Great Tribulation. From our limited perspective, it can occur at any time: It is imminent.

III. Those in Christ Will Be Raptured

1 Thessalonians 4:16 states that those in Christ will be raptured. Also, 1 Corinthians 15:22-23: 22. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 23. But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, after that those who are Christ's at His coming. Again, the Festival of Firstfruits is prophetic of Christ's resurrection, and Trumpets is prophetic of the Rapture of those who are Christ's at His coming. In light of verse 22, the latter part of verse 23 refers specifically to the resurrection of the deceased in Christ. But who, exactly, is in Christ?


Obviously, it includes only believers. 1 Thessalonians 4:14 distinguishes those in Christ from the rest who have no hope, and verse 17 states that they shall always be with the Lord.


Do those in Christ include all believers since Adam? Such terms as in Christ, in Christ Jesus, in Him, in whom and in the Lord, are used, without exception, for believers from Pentecost through the Rapture - in other words, for church saints; for the Church Age began at Pentecost and will terminate with the Rapture.5 It was on the Day of Pentecost in Acts 2, that the Spirit baptized two sinful “loaves” into one body: For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Gentiles (1 Corinthians 12:13) that He might make the two into one new man (Ephesians 2:15).


All pre- and post-church saints will likewise come to dwell with the Lord in Heaven,6 but the Rapture involves only those in Christ, the church, believers from Pentecost to the Rapture - and all in Christ.



A. The Scriptures Say All

The church is raptured before the Great Tribulation; yet, there are many who believe that some believers who will be left behind by the Lord for the purposes of sanctification or witness during the Tribulation. We will now address this issue.


My rebuttal is very complicated: the Scriptures say all.


1 Corinthians 15:51: We will all be changed.

3. While they are saying, "Peace and safety!" then destruction will come upon them suddenly like labor pains upon a woman with child, and they will not escape. 4. But you, brethren, are not in darkness, that the day would overtake you like a thief; 5. for you are all sons of light and sons of day.


~ 1 Thessalonians 5:3-5 ~


The Tribulation will not overtake the Thessalonian believers like a thief, because they are all sons of light and sons of day.


1 Thessalonians 4:13-18. A plain reading of the passage gives the impression that all will be included, and no hint is dropped that any will be left out. We who are alive and remain is found twice, in verses 14 and 17, and is all inclusive.


In verse 18, Paul exhorts the Thessalonians, Therefore, comfort one another with these words. Now, if Paul had left any impression that some of the Thessalonians might be left behind at the Rapture, on what basis could they comfort one another?


These all passages leave no loophole whatever for most or some

B. Who is the Great Tribulation For?

To emphasize the fact that no Church Age believer will miss the Rapture and be on Earth during the Tribulation, let us see who the Tribulation is for.


3. While they are saying, "Peace and safety!" then destruction will come upon them suddenly like labor pains upon a woman with child, and they will not escape. 4. But you, brethren, are not in darkness, that the day would overtake you like a thief; 5. for you are all sons of light and sons of day.


~ 1 Thessalonians 5:3-5 ~


The Great Tribulation is not for church saints, who are all sons of light and sons of day, but is for those who are in darkness, a reference to those who have not received the Lord as Savior.


8. Then that lawless one will be revealed whom the Lord will slay with the breath of His mouth and bring to an end by the appearance of His coming; 9. that is, the one whose coming is in accord with the activity of Satan, with all power and signs and false wonders, 10. and with all the deception of wickedness for those who perish, because they did not receive the love of the truth so as to be saved. 11. For this reason God will send upon them a deluding influence so that they will believe what is false,12. in order that they all may be judged who did not believe the truth, but took pleasure in wickedness. 13. But we should always give thanks to God for you, brethren beloved by the Lord, because God has chosen you from the beginning for salvation through sanctification by the Spirit and faith in the truth. 

~ 2 Thessalonians 2:8-13 ~


The Tribulation is not for those who have been chosen . . . for salvation, but is for those who perish, because they did not receive the love of the truth so as to be saved. For what reason is the Tribulation for them? That they all may be judged who did not believe the truth. Can a passage be more exclusive of Church saints than this?


Both passages clearly distinguish between believers, who will not experience the Tribulation, and unbelievers at the time of the Rapture who will be left on Earth to be judged during the Tribulation because they chose darkness and wickedness over light and salvation.

IV. Passages Mistaken to Say Otherwise

All church saints will be Raptured and none will experience the Tribulation; yet, some passages have been misunderstood to mean that some church saints will be left behind for the sake of chastisement or sanctification. Often such misinterpretation is influenced by having observed some who claim to be believers but act as if they are not, and by the fact that believers are promised chastisement by the Lord as a means of sanctification (cf. 1 Corinthians 5:5, Hebrews 12:6-11). To begin with, personal observation ought never to be used as a basis for interpreting Scripture: Scripture ought to be used to interpret our personal observations! Let us now examine some relevant categories of Scripture.

A. "Tare" Believers

Not all who appear to be believers really are believers. They appear to the natural eye to be members of the church, but they have never, from the heart, exercised faith in the Lord to be saved (cf. Romans 10:9-10). In Matthew 13:24-30, 36-43, the Lord metaphorically identifies such as tares. A tare, also called darnel (darnel is described by Britannica as "a noxious weed"). Darnel looks like wheat, but is not wheat. Tares, in Scripture, are not believers, at all, and tares alive at the time of the Rapture will be left behind. Tares are also the subject of Matthew 7:21-23:


21. Not everyone who says to Me, "Lord, Lord," will enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven will enter. 21. Many will say to Me on that day, "Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in Your name, and in Your name cast out demons, and in Your name perform many miracles?" 23. And then I will declare to them, "I never knew you; DEPART FROM ME, YOU WHO PRACTICE LAWLESSNESS."


 Of course, tare "believers" will be left behind at the Rapture. They were never believers to begin with:  I never knew you.

B. Carnal Believers

Carnal (KJV) or men of flesh (NASB) believers are to be distinguished from what 1 Corinthians 3:1 refers to as babes (KJV) or infants in Christ (NASB). Verses 1-3 describe carnal believers as ones who are no longer babes, but have not yet matured, who act as if they had never been saved.

It is this class of believers that is truly the subject of the issue: Will they be left behind for the sake of chastisement and sanctification during the Great Tribulation? Let us examine some passages that are often taken to say that they will, and then a real eye-opener that shows who could have gotten raptured.


1. Passages in Question
Probably, the two most popular are Matthew 24:40-42 and 25:1-13.


Matthew 24:40-42
40. Then there will be two men in the field; one will be taken and one will be left. 41. Two women will be grinding at the mill; one will be taken and one will be left. 42. Therefore be on the alert, for you do not know which day your Lord is coming.


The question is debated: To which event does this refer, the Rapture or the Second Coming? Through verse 35, the Lord has been speaking of His Second Coming; but Dr. Fruchtenbaum explains that verse 36 begins with but, which in the Greek, is peri de, which introduces a change in subject. Verses 40 - 42, then, must be speaking of the Rapture (The Footsteps of the Messiah, pp. 640-641, Ariel Ministries), and the meaning is simple and consistent with all of the all verses concerning the Rapture: those taken from the field and the mill will be believers, who will be raptured, and those who will be left on earth will be unbelievers. 


But can the passage refer to the judgment of the sheep and goats immediately following the Second Coming? Matthew 25:31-46, esp. v. 32, show that none will remain in the field or at the mill because  the Lord said that He will gather them all for judgment; but in the Matthew 24 passage, some will be taken and some left, a phenomenon consistent with the Rapture.


The Matthew 24 passage cannot be used to show that some believers will be left behind at the Rapture; it distinguishes between believers who will be taken and unbelievers, who will be left.


Matthew 25:1-13
In this passage, the five virgins who had oil in their lamps were welcomed to the wedding feast, and the five who did not were refused entry. Do the five foolish virgins represent believers who did not make the Rapture?


The passage must be understood on the basis of the Jewish wedding traditions of the day, which those whom Jesus was addressing knew well:


"In the Jewish wedding system, when the marriage was to be consummated, the bridegroom would go to the home of the bride to fetch her and bring her to his home. As he approached his own home, he would be met by a procession of virgins who would conduct the bride and groom for the marriage ceremony to be followed by the marriage feast. This is the background of this parable.

"When the bridegroom, the Messiah, returns to earth with His Bride - the Church - for the marriage feast, the virgins will be responsible for both watching for His return, and being ready to light the lamps upon His return. The five virgins who were wise will be the ones who are believers; hence, they will be both ready and watching. They are the ones who have the oil, a common symbol of the Holy Spirit. Only the wise ones enter the marriage feast, the common symbol for the Messianic Kingdom. Because the Messiah is pictured as already with His Bride, the Church which had been raptured, these who have the oil are people who became believers during the Tribulation. They are saved and invited to the wedding feast as guests. The five foolish virgins will be the unbelievers and, therefore, will be neither ready nor watching. They do not have any oil. It should be noted that the text does not say that the foolish virgins ran out of oil, but that they have no oil with them. They never had the oil or the Holy Spirit to begin with."7


The passage does not refer to the Rapture, but to those survivors of the Tribulation who are and are not allowed entry into the Messianic Kingdom. It cannot be taken to indicate that some believers will be left behind at the Rapture.


2. The Corinthian Man
Surely, in the Corinthian and Thessalonian churches to whom Paul addressed the all passages, there must have been some carnal believers; yet Paul told the Thessalonians 4. But you, brethren, are not in darkness, that the day would overtake you like a thief; 5. for you are all sons of light and sons of day (1 Thessalonians 5) - but let's look at one Corinthian believer of especial notoriety.


In 1 Corinthians 5, Paul spends thirteen verses taking the Corinthians to task. He begins, It is actually reported that there is immorality among you, and immorality of such a kind as does not exist even among the Gentiles, that someone has his father's wife (v. 1). Paul considered this man's offense so severe that he urged the church to excommunicate him (v. 13), and he himself decided to deliver such a one to Satan for the destruction of his flesh, so that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. (The destruction of his flesh refers to the destruction of the body, even unto death if there is no repentance.) Paul did not know whether or not the man would repent; yet it was to this same church - in the same letter (15:51) - that he wrote, we will not all sleep, but we will all be changed. So, no. Not even that carnal Corinthian man would have been left behind.

C. General Tribulation Passages

There are passages that refer to tribulation that is common to all believers, but do not refer to the Great Tribulation. Such passages may be thought of as general tribulation passages, and must be distinguished from Great Tribulation passages. Yet, some believers confuse the former with the latter and conclude that some believers will be left behind at the Rapture to undergo the Great Tribulation on earth. Two such passages are John 16:33 and Romans 8:35.


John 16:33: In the world you have tribulation, but take courage; I have overcome the world.


Romans 8:35: Who will separate us from the love of Christ? Will tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?


On what basis shall we distinguish between the two classes of passages? If there is no direct or contextual reference to the Great Tribulation, it is only reasonable to view the passage as a general tribulation passage.

D. Passages in the Book of Revelation

The Book of Revelation reveals that there will be multitudes of believers on Earth during the Great Tribulation. Some take this to mean that some church saints will miss the Rapture and experience the Tribulation. However, a simple, thoughtful reading of Revelation 7:4-10 will indicate that these people become saved during the Tribulation: 144,000 Jews will be sovereignly saved by God, and these, in turn, will lead multitudes to salvation.

E. "We Must Pray to Escape the Tribulation"

But keep on the alert at all times, praying that you may have strength to escape all these things that are about to take place, and to stand before the Son of Man. (Luke 21:36)


Does this mean that if believers don't pray for strength to escape all these things that they will be left behind at the Rapture to endure the Great Tribulation?


Strength is translated be counted worthy in many other translations, including Young's Literal and the Literal Translation of the Holy Bible. Also, the same Greek word translated escape is found in Romans 2:3, 1 Thessalonians 5:3, and Hebrews 2:3; and in all of these cases, it clearly means to avoid. Therefore, the verse cannot refer to believers escaping out of the Tribulation, but of avoiding it completely. Other than dying before the Tribulation, how may one avoid it completely? By receiving the Lord - the only way of being counted worthy (2 Corinthians 5:21) to be Raptured and to stand before the Son of Man at the Judgment Seat of Christ in Heaven to receive their rewards (1 Corinthians 3:11-15). Now, the disciples whose questions Jesus was responding to were already saved; so when He used you, He could not have been referring to them: He must have been prophetically exhorting all of Israel to receive Him as their Messiah and to thereby be sure of avoiding the time of Jacob's trouble (Jeremiah 30:7) - yet, He spoke it in the hearing of His apostles, for it was to be their commission to carry these and all of His words to the Jew first and also to the Greek (Matthew 28:18-20; Romans 1:16).


He was not exhorting believers to pray to be counted worthy to avoid the Tribulation. He was prophetically exhorting unsaved Israelites to be counted worthy to avoid it by receiving Him as Messiah.

V. The Significance of the Rapture

There appear to be three major points of significance in regards to the Rapture:

  • End of the Church Age. The Rapture marks the end of the Church Age. This, in turn, is significant because the Lord will deal differently with those who come to faith after the Rapture than He does with the church.

  • Absolute Victory. The Rapture marks the commencement of absolute eternal victory for the church and all of its members (1 Corinthians 15:54-57). It is when deceased church believers become resurrected, when all church believers receive their heavenly bodies, and when the church will forever be delivered of the sin nature and of sinning, and to thenceforth and forevermore always be with the Lord.

  • It Sets the Stage for the Consummation of All Things. After two thousand years or more since the epochal event of Pentecost, the Rapture of the church will set the stage for the Judgment Seat of Christ, the Great Tribulation, the salvation of Israel, the Second Coming, the Messianic Kingdom, the Great White Throne Judgment and the Eternal Ages.

VI. Biblical Attitudes Concerning the Rapture

A. We Are Not to Doubt, But Believe

2 Peter 3:3-4: 3. Know this first of all, that in the last days mockers will come with their mocking, following after their own lusts, 4. and saying, "Where is the promise of His coming? For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all continues just as it was from the beginning of creation." The passage is specific to the Lord's Second Coming, but it may easily be said of the Rapture, as well.


The Bible records events akin to the Rapture, and we believe that they actually happened; yet, when it comes to the Rapture, some wonder. Perhaps reviewing these events may strengthen faith where such strengthening is needed. It is suggested that the reader decide which elements of the Rapture are in common with these events, which are different, and which we cannot discern as not enough information is given. For example, the Rapture takes place in an instant, but we know that the Lord's ascension was gradual because it is recorded that His disciples watched Him rise.

  • Enoch
    Genesis 5:24: Enoch walked with God; and he was not, for God took him.

    Hebrews 11:5: By faith Enoch was taken up so that he would not see death; AND HE WAS NOT FOUND BECAUSE GOD TOOK HIM UP; for he obtained the witness that before his being taken up he was pleasing to God.

  • Elijah

    11. As they were going along and talking, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire and horses of fire which separated the two of them. And Elijah went up by a whirlwind to heaven. 12. Elisha saw it and cried out, "My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and its horsemen!" And he saw Elijah no more.

    ~ 2 Kings 2:11-12 ~

  • Jesus' Ascension
    Mark 16:19: So then, when the Lord Jesus had spoken to them, He was received up into heaven and sat down at the right hand of God.

    Luke 24:51: While He was blessing them, He parted from them and was carried up into heaven.

    2. until the day when He was taken up to heaven . . . . 9. And after He had said these things, He was lifted up while they were looking on, and a cloud received Him out of their sight. 10. And as they were gazing intently into the sky while He was going, behold, two men in white clothing stood beside them. 11. They also said, "Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the sky? This Jesus, who has been taken up from you into heaven, will come in just the same way as you have watched Him go into heaven."

    ~ Acts 1:2, 9-11 ~

  • Philip
    Acts 8:39-40: 39. When they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord snatched Philip away; and the eunuch no longer saw him, but went on his way rejoicing. 40. But Philip found himself at Azotus . . . .

    The Greek word translated snatched here is harpazo, the same word translated caught up in 1 Thessalonians 4:17: Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds . . . .

  • Paul

    2. I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago - whether in the body I do not know, or out of the body I do not know, God knows - such a man was caught up to the third heaven. 3. And I know how such a man - whether in the body or apart from the body I do not know, God knows - 4. was caught up into Paradise and heard inexpressible words, which a man is not permitted to speak.

    ~ 2 Corinthians 12:2-4 ~

    Caught up here is also harpazo.

  • The Apostle John

    1. After these things I looked, and behold, a door standing open in heaven, and the first voice which I had heard, like the sound of a trumpet speaking with me, said, "Come up here, and I will show you what must take place after these things." 2. Immediately I was in the Spirit; and behold, a throne was standing in heaven, and One sitting on the throne.

    ~ Revelation 4:1-2 ~


  • Various Resurrections
    Then, of course, there are the various resurrections apart from that of the dead in Christ at the Rapture, such as, Elijah's resurrection of the widow of Zarephath's son (1 Kings 17:17-24); the Lord's resurrection of Lazarus (John 11:1-12:17); the Lord's own resurrection (Matthew 289:2-8, Mark 16:2-8, Luke 24:1-8); Peter's resurrection of Dorcas (Acts 9:36-42).

Do we believe these things? If so, there should be no doubt about the Rapture, either. Speaking specifically of a pre-Tribulation Rapture, Paul exhorted, Therefore, my brothers, stand fast and hold the teachings which you have been taught, whether by word or by our letter (2 Thessalonians 2:15).

B. We Are Not to Be Troubled or Afraid, But at Peace

John 14:27: Peace I leave with you; My peace I give to you; not as the world gives do I give to you. Do not let your heart be troubled, nor let it be fearful. 28. You heard that I said to you, "I go away, and I will come to you." This exhortation appears to make immediate reference to His resurrection, but it obviously has application to the Rapture, as well.

C. We Are to Wait Expectantly and Thankfully in Hope

Romans 8:23: And not only this, but also we ourselves, having the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting eagerly for our adoption as sons, the redemption of our body.


1 Corinthians 15:55-57: 55. "O DEATH, WHERE IS YOUR VICTORY? O DEATH, WHERE IS YOUR STING?" 56. The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law; 57. but thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.


1 Thessalonians 1:10: and to wait for His Son from heaven, whom He raised from the dead, that is Jesus, who rescues us from the wrath to come. Also Romans 8:25 and Galatians 5:5.


Titus 2:13: looking for the blessed hope and the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ . . . .

VII. Biblical Activities in Light of the Rapture

These passages were all written in the context of the Rapture:

  • We Are to Stand Fast in the Word
    2 Thessalonians 2:15: Therefore, my brothers, stand fast and hold the teachings which you have been taught, whether by word or by our letter.

  • We Are to Comfort and Encourage One Another
    Thessalonians 4:18: Therefore comfort one another with these words.

    9. For God has not destined us for wrath, but for obtaining salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ, 10. who died for us, so that whether we are awake or asleep, we will live together with Him. 11. Therefore encourage one another and build up one another, just as you also are doing.

    ~ 1 Thessalonians 5:9-11 ~

    2 Thessalonians 2:16-17: 16. Now may our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, and God, even our Father, who has loved us and has given us everlasting consolation and good hope through grace, 17. comfort your hearts and establish you in every good word and work.

  • We Are to Steadfastly Abound in the Work of the Lord
    1Corinthians 15:58: Therefore, my beloved brethren, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your toil is not in vain in the Lord.

    2 Thessalonians 2:16-17: 16. Now may our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, and God, even our Father, who has loved us and has given us everlasting consolation and good hope through grace, 17. comfort your hearts and establish you in every good word and work.

VIII. Church Saints Rewarded

Once the church has been raptured and in Heaven with Christ, each of its members will stand before the Judgment Seat of Christ. Romans 14: 10b. For we will all stand before the judgment seat of God. . . . 12. So then each one of us will give an account of himself to God; 2 Corinthians 5:10: For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each one may be recompensed for his deeds in the body, according to what he has done, whether good or bad; and Luke 21:36, which we already addressed: But keep on the alert at all times, praying that you may have strength to escape all these things that are about to take place, and to stand before the Son of Man. Here, at the Judgment Seat of Christ, each believer will be rewarded for the quality of his or her service for Christ while here on Earth. Paul declared,


10. According to the grace of God which was given to me, like a wise master builder I laid a foundation, and another is building on it. But each man must be careful how he builds on it. 11. For no man can lay a foundation other than the one which is laid, which is Jesus Christ. 12. Now if any man builds on the foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, straw, 13. each man's work will become evident; for the day will show it because it is to be revealed with fire, and the fire itself will test the quality of each man's work. 14. If any man's work which he has built on it remains, he will receive a reward. 15. If any man's work is burned up, he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved, yet so as through fire.

~ 1 Corinthians 3:10-15 ~


Some passages shedding light on what the Lord will look for as He judges, and the rewards that He will bestow, are Matthew 28:18-20; Romans 6:1-4; 1 Corinthians 9:4-27; 2 Timothy 2:5, 4:8; James 1:12, 3:1-9; 1 Peter 5:1-6 and Revelation 2:10.



1. *Full AMC Statement

2. The raising of the dead is called resurrection, but the catching up of the living is called translation, a term found in some translations in Hebrews 11:5: By faith Enoch was translated that he should not see death (KJV).
3. See the author's study, The Destinies of the Dead.

4. See the author's study, Eternal Security.
5. Biblical support for this point may be found in section VI.B.8 in the author's study, Who Is Israel? Who Are the Jews?.
6. See the author's study, The Destinies of the Dead.
7. Dr. Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, Footsteps of the Messiah, pdf, p. 645. Available at Ariel Ministries in various formats.

* If you were blessed by this study, please consider linking to it. Thank you. *


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                              Scriptures used by the author are generally in the New King James or New American Standard translations.
                             Scriptures in quotations by Dr. Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum are in the American Standard Version.
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