The Millennium
By Norman Manzon

Part 6:
Worship in the Kingdom


The Messianic Kingdom is part of an extended series of studies in support of the We Believe statement* of The Association of Messianic Congregations. Much groundwork for this present study has been laid in the five prior studies of the Kingdom series, links to which are here:

and the four studies that follow it: 
Part 1: Introduction
Part 2: The Inhabitants of the Kingdom 
Part 3: The Two Foundational Realities 
Part 4: The Kingdom Environment
Part 5: Israel in the Promised Land


Please consider whether it might be beneficial for you to review them so that the present study may be more fully understood in its historical and other contexts. For even firmer foundation, the following studies by the author might likewise be reviewed: The Destinies of the Dead, The Rapture, The Great Tribulation and The Second Coming of Jesus Christ. Some of what has been examined in these studies will be touched on here, but not treated fully.


It is worth stating, once again, that the prophesied Kingdom is a literal, earthly Kingdom in which Jesus will reign bodily as king over Israel and the world. A polemic to this effect is presented in section IV of The Millennial or Messianic Kingdom - Part 1: Introduction.


As has been previously mentioned, a compilation of the Bible's passages concerning the Kingdom would constitute a book. It must therefore be recognized that what is presented herein is, of necessity, a much abbreviated outline and summary.


As in the previous Kingdom studies, we will begin with a restatement of those declarations in the AMC We Believe statement that have relevance to the Kingdom.




The Tri-Unity, Part 2: God the Son
We believe that God the Son became flesh in the person of Yeshua of Nazareth, the promised Messiah of Israel, who was conceived of the Spirit of God and born of the Jewish virgin, Miriam (Mary). We believe in His full deity and full humanity, His sinless life, and His miracles. We believe that Messiah Yeshua arose from the dead bodily, ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of the Father, making intercession for believers. He will come again in glory establishing His literal Millennial kingdom on earth. (Isaiah 9:6,7; Jeremiah 23:5,6; Micah 5:2; Luke 1:26-79)



We believe Israel is God's special people, distinct from the body of Messiah, chosen by Him to be a holy nation and a kingdom of priests. The election of Israel is irrevocable. . . . We believe the Abrahamic Covenant is an irrevocable, unconditional covenant God made with Jewish people. This covenant provides title to the land of Israel for the Jewish people and promises a descendant (the Messiah) who would come to redeem Israel and bless the entire world. The spiritual blessings of the Abrahamic Covenant overflow to all the nations. God will ultimately fulfill every aspect of the covenant in the Messianic Kingdom, both physical and spiritual. . . . (Genesis 12:1-3, 15:1-21; Romans 11:1-29)


Last Things

We believe in the personal, bodily, visible, and pre-millennial return of the Lord Yeshua. At that time He will lift the corruption which now rests upon the whole of creation, totally restore Israel to her own land, give her the realization of God's covenanted promises and bring the whole world to the knowledge of God. We believe in the bodily resurrection of all men. . . . (Daniel 9:24-27; Matthew 24:30; Acts 1:11; Romans 8:19-23; 11:25-27; Titus 2:13) *Full AMC Statement


By the end of the Great Tribulation and the seventy-five day interval between the Tribulation and the Kingdom, the Lord will have utterly destroyed the evil world system and purged the earth of all unbelievers, including the armies of Antichrist which will seek to destroy Israel. Having done this, the Lord will renovate the earth, making it a beautiful, edenic, safe place in which to live. Although not perfect because certain aspects of the Adamic curse will continue, most significantly, the presence of the sin nature in those with mortal bodies, and death for many, if not all, in mortal bodies. Also, many who will be born into the Kingdom will reject the salvation and Lordship of Jesus, and Edom and Babylon will be cursed to become utterly desolate habitations of demons; yet, the planet, as a whole, will be edenic compared to the way it is today.


The Kingdom environment will be characterized by divine presence. The Lord Jesus will reign supreme over the nations from His throne in Jerusalem, and the Holy Spirit will fill the earth with the splendor of the Lord's glory. No false religion, philosophy or occult practice will be allowed to flourish, and the earth will be full of the knowledge of the LORD as the waters cover the sea (Isaiah 11:9; Habakkuk 2:14).


All who enter the Kingdom, whether as "walk-ins" from the Great Tribulation, or by resurrection, or by being returned, body and soul, to earth from heaven, will be saved. This glorious throng will be composed of all believers since Adam.


According to Revelation 20:6, all who had been resurrected in immortal bodies will reign with Christ in some capacity for the duration of the Millennium. This group will be comprised of all Old and New Testament saints, both Jewish and Gentile, the two Tribulation witnesses and all martyred Tribulation saints. Surely, Enoch and Elijah, who had never seen death but had been drawn up directly into Heaven, will reign, as well.


Jesus will reign over the entire earth in general, and will exercise special kingship over Israel with resurrected King David reigning as king over Israel under Him. Under this dual kingship, the twelve apostles will reign over the twelve tribes of Israel, and there will be judges and counselors in Israel, as well (Isaiah 1:26). Zerubbabel, post-exilic governor of Judah, will be placed in some unnamed position in Israel (Haggai 2:23). The Gentile nations of the world will be ruled by Gentile kings, but Israel will have authority over them and their nations (Isaiah 14:1-2; 60:10-61:5). The church saints and the Tribulation martyrs will rule over the Gentiles, as well (Revelation 20:4-6). How these different rulerships over the Gentiles will coordinate with one another remains to be seen. Civil laws will be rendered in the Kingdom (Micah 4:1-2) from Jesus on down, and there will be laws regarding worship, as well, as we see in our present study.


In Israel in the Promised Land, we addressed three key facets of Israel's blessedness in the Kingdom and concluded with a look at the significance of Israel's Kingdom blessedness for the nations of the world. We will now follow with a look at worship in the kingdom which, incidentally, brings out another aspect of Israel's blessedness in the Kingdom, namely, their service as priests and Levitical helpers in the temple. Another aspect of their blessedness in the Kingdom that has been touched on, but will be developed a bit more here, will be their primacy in broadcasting the Word of the Lord to the nations of the world, consistent with their role under Moses, in the Person of Jesus, in the Church Age, and in the Great Tribulation.

XVII. The Mountain of the House of the Lord

We have already seen how the Lord will renovate the planet with a specific focus on Israel. Cataclysmic geographical changes will be wrought in the Land, centered in Jerusalem, which will be the world's capital city, center of worship and dwelling place of the Lord - the city of our God. The Korahite who wrote Psalm 48 lauded the praises of the future Millennial Jerusalem even in his day:

1. Great is the LORD, and greatly to be praised in the city of our God, in the mountain of his holiness. 2 Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, is mount Zion, on the sides of the north, the city of the great King.

~ Psalm 48:1-2 ~


The city of the Great King will be breathtaking in beauty in the day when Jesus takes up His royal residence there. The scope of rebuilt Mount Zion itself will be a marvel to behold. This is brought out in Isaiah 2:2-3:


2. Now it will come about that in the last days the mountain of the house of the LORD will be established as the chief of the mountains, and will be raised above the hills; and all the nations will stream to it. 3. And many peoples will come and say, "Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob; that He may teach us concerning His ways and that we may walk in His paths." For the law will go forth from Zion and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.

Isaiah 2:2-3 ~


Today, Mount Zion is a hill in Jerusalem just outside the walls of the Old City; but in the Kingdom, it will literally be raised up to be the chief of the mountains, the tallest mountain in the world. The sheer mass of the mountain is brought out in Ezekiel 48:8,20, which describes the plaza at the peak of Zion on which the temple and its environs will stand as an area of 50 miles X 50 miles, 2500 square miles. (2) If that's how big the plaza will be near its peak, it boggles the mind to imagine how big this world's tallest mountain will be at its base! One who has visited modern Jerusalem will readily understand that colossal physical changes as are described in the Isaiah and Ezekiel passages must certainly come to pass before a mountain with such a plaza could be possible. Modern Jerusalem covers an area of only 48.3 square miles, less than one fiftieth the area of just the plaza at the peak of millennial Zion. (3) The base of this great mountain will extend far beyond the boundaries of all of modern Jerusalem! The square mileage of Israel, including Gaza, the Golan heights, Judea and Samaria, is only 10,062 square miles. (4) Just the plaza at the peak of the mountain will cover an area 25% the area of modern Israel. How much of Israel will the mountain's base take up? We simply don't know; but it must be remembered that Millennial Israel will be considerably bigger than modern Israel. (See maps of Millennial Israel in Israel in the Promised Land.)


There are those who claim that mountain here is merely a symbol for the Kingdom as mountain in Daniel 2:35 is. However, it ought to readily be apparent that in this case it cannot be so. 


We already pointed out the necessity for such a literal mountain to serve as the pedestal for the temple and its environs. If mountain is symbolic here, then what are we to do with the great number of details in the description of the temple itself, which stands on it, which we shall summarize shortly? If the mountain that the temple stands on is to be interpreted symbolically, then this highly detailed temple, its priesthood, and the detailed instructions concerning worship within it must be interpreted symbolically; and if that is the case, then what is each of the details supposed to symbolize? If we interpret this mountain, temple and detailed worship symbolically, then should we not follow suit and interpret all of the various detailed descriptions of Mosaic worship in Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy symbolically, as well? Why not? The two situations are a perfect parallel. But if we interpret the details of the Mosaic tabernacle with all of its furnishings, the priesthood, the detailed sacrifices and all other elements of worship literally, as we universally do, then logical consistency demands that we should interpret the detailed descriptions of the Millennial temple and its worship requirements literally, as well. In fact, each detail presented adds more weight to a literal interpretation as biblical symbols tend to be simple, not detailed, intricate and complex!


Let's take another look at the Isaiah passage just presented:


And many peoples will come and say, "Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob; that He may teach us concerning His ways and that we may walk in His paths." For the Law will go forth from  Zion and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. 


If mountain is symbolic of the Kingdom here, then will these many peoples be saying, "Come, let us go up to the Kingdom"? They are already in the Kingdom!


As concerns the believability of the great cataclysmic changes that are prophesied to take place in the Land, even unbelieving scientists believe that the earth has undergone even greater cataclysmic changes in the past, such as the separation of the continents from one continuous land mass, and the lifting up of mountain ranges due to the convergence of the earth's tectonic plates - so why not believe that such changes may take place in the future? It would behoove the doubter to consider, once again, this admonition of Dr. David L. Cooper called The Golden Rule of Interpretation: 

"When the plain sense of Scripture makes common sense, seek no other sense; therefore, take every word at its primary, ordinary, usual, literal meaning unless the facts of the immediate context, studied in the light of related passages and axiomatic and fundamental truths indicate clearly otherwise." (5)

XVIII. Millennial Jerusalem

Mount Zion will contain on its plaza not only the House of the LORD and its environs, but all of rebuilt Jerusalem. Based on descriptions in Ezekiel 47 and 48, Dr. Cooper calculates that the dimensions of rebuilt Jerusalem will be ten miles by ten miles, 100 square miles. (6) It will be easily contained on Mt. Zion's plaza with 2400 square miles to spare!


Will Jerusalem actually be on the plaza at the peak of Mt. Zion?


Consider: The law will go forth from Zion and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. If Jerusalem were next to Mount Zion as opposed to being at its peak, the Lord would have to commute from His home in Jerusalem to the top of the tallest mountain in the world, and then, at the end of His work day, commute back down to His home deep in the valley below. He'll decree His law from Zion, run back down this huge mountain to declare the word of the LORD from Jerusalem, and then, perhaps, run back up again to declare more law from Zion. Of course, I'm being humorous. The God-Man in His glorified body would be able to transport Himself in an instant from place to place; but we're still left to deal with the relative sizes of Zion and Jerusalem and the positioning of the two in relation to each other.


Therefore, let's consider one more thing: The law will go forth from Zion and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. The obvious tenor of the passage is that Zion and Jerusalem are at the same location. How could they be at the same location and yet be in different places? Easy. The smaller is contained in the larger. Further, let us consider Psalm 48:2 again: Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, is mount Zion, on the sides of the north, the city of the great King. The passage treats mount Zion and the city of the great King as identical.

XIX. The House of the Lord

It is necessary to distinguish the Millennial temple from the one that will precede it.


For quite some time in Israel, and still in process today, is the development of plans and crafted items for the construction of a third Holy Temple on the present Temple Mount. A model of the temple has been constructed, the Golden Menorah and many of the implements to be used by the Kohanim (priests) have been crafted, the Levitical and priestly garments have been designed and created, the breastplate containing the twelve precious stones and the musical instruments for the Levitical choir have been created, steps have been taken to acquire or breed a ritually pure red heifer for the purification of the altar (Numbers 19), and rehearsals for the proper carrying out of all the priestly and Levitical functions are under way, including rehearsals for the proper carrying out of sacrifices. (7) This, plus the shaping up of prophetic conditions in the world today, particularly the fact that an increasing number of nations appear to be aligning themselves against Israel (see Zechariah 14:2), it seems likely that these preparations will find their fulfillment in the construction of Israel's third temple in the not too distant future - but this will be the temple that Antichrist will protect once it's built, and perhaps even pave the way for the Jews to build, and it will be the temple in which he will declare himself to be God and demand worship from the Jews. It will be the Tribulation temple, and it must certainly be distinguished from the Millennial temple as the descriptions of the two temples are vastly different. The former will certainly be destroyed, either by the Lord's judgment in the Great Tribulation or in the cataclysmic uplifting of Mount Zion, to clear the way for the Millennial temple.


The Millennial temple, which will differ from all previous temples, is detailed in Ezekiel 40:5 - 43:27 with all of its various walls, gates, courtyards, pavements, chambers, the table for preparing the sacrifices, the altar, the porch, the Holy Place, the Holy of Holies, and descriptions of the interior and exterior of the temple. Dr. Fruchtenbaum points out,


"From all these various measurements, it is evident that this particular Temple will be larger than all previous Temples, measuring about one mile square. The area of the present Temple Compound is not large enough to hold the Temple described by Ezekiel and will require some major geographical changes. That is why the new Mountain of Jehovah's House will be necessary." (8)

XX. The Temple Priesthood

Both Jews and Gentiles will serve in official functions in temple worship.


The Jewish functionaries will be members of the tribe of Levi just as it was the sons of Levi who served as priests and Levitical helpers under the Law of Moses. God has promised to perform a thorough spiritual cleansing in all Israel and fill them with His Spirit (Ezekiel 36:25-29), but one tribe in particular is named:

1. "Behold, I am going to send My messenger, and he will clear the way before Me. And the Lord, whom you seek, will suddenly come to His temple; and the messenger of the covenant, in whom you delight, behold, He is coming," says the LORD of hosts. 2. But who can endure the day of His coming? And who can stand when He appears? For He is like a refiner's fire and like fullers' soap. 3. He will sit as a smelter and purifier of silver, and He will purify the sons of Levi and refine them like gold and silver, so that they may present to the LORD offerings in righteousness.

~ Malachi 3:1-3 ~


The Lord will enter His Kingdom temple after His return, and He will purify the sons of Levi and refine them like gold and silver, so that they may present to the LORD offerings in righteousness. He will work a special work of purification among them in preparation for Temple service.

God will also select priests and temple helpers from among the Gentiles:


20. "Then they shall bring all your brethren from all the nations as a grain offering to the LORD, on horses, in chariots, in litters, on mules and on camels, to My holy mountain Jerusalem," says the LORD, "just as the sons of Israel bring their grain offering in a clean vessel to the house of the LORD. 21. "I will also take some of them for priests and for Levites," says the LORD. . . . 23. "And it shall be from new moon to new moon And from sabbath to sabbath, All mankind will come to bow down before Me," says the LORD.

~ Isaiah 66:20-23 ~


Gentiles will assist in the return of Israelites to their Land, and God will also take some of them for priests and for Levites." Not only will Jews serve as temple priests, but Gentiles will, as well. Not only will some of the physical sons of Levi serve as Levitical helpers, but some Gentiles will likewise be taken, figuratively speaking, for Levites. (They will not, of course, be physical descendants of Levi.)

XXI. Worshipers in General

Just as temple functionaries will consist of both Jews and Gentiles, so will temple worshipers. In fact, every nation in the world will be expected to send a contingency to Jerusalem to worship during the Feast of Tabernacles.


Ezekiel 46:3 is one passage that states clearly that, besides the Jewish priests and Levites, ordinary Jewish people will worship in the temple: The people of the land shall also worship at the doorway of that gate before the LORD on the sabbaths and on the new moons.


As for Gentile worship in the temple, no passage makes it plainer than Zechariah 14:16-18:


16. Then it will come about that any who are left of all the nations that went against Jerusalem will go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and to celebrate the Feast of Booths [Tabernacles]. 17. And it will be that whichever of the families of the earth does not go up to Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, there will be no rain on them. 18. If the family of Egypt does not go up or enter, then no rain will fall on them; it will be the plague with which the LORD smites the nations who do not go up to celebrate the Feast of Booths.

~ Zechariah 14:16-18 ~


Let us recall it was all the nations of the world that God will have brought against Jerusalem (Zechariah 14:2). Therefore, a contingency from every nation among whom some will survive the Great Tribulation, namely, the sheep Gentiles, and their descendants (Matthew 25:31-40), will be required to worship the Lord in the Kingdom during the Feast of Tabernacles.

At the Jerusalem council in Acts 15,


13 James answered, saying, "Brethren, listen to me. 14. Simeon has related how God first concerned Himself about taking from among the Gentiles a people for His name. 15. With this the words of the Prophets agree, just as it is written, 16. 'AFTER THESE THINGS I will return, AND I WILL REBUILD THE TABERNACLE OF DAVID WHICH HAS FALLEN, AND I WILL REBUILD ITS RUINS, AND I WILL RESTORE IT, 17. SO THAT THE REST OF MANKIND MAY SEEK THE LORD, AND ALL THE GENTILES WHO ARE CALLED BY MY NAME,' 18. SAYS THE LORD, WHO MAKES THESE THINGS KNOWN FROM LONG AGO."

~ Acts 15: 13-18 ~


But why is Tabernacles specifically mentioned in the Zechariah passage? Consider: Just as at His first coming the Word became flesh, and dwelt - [literally, tabernacled] - among us (John 1:14), so in the Kingdom the Lord will again tabernacle, or pitch the physical tent of His body, among us. And John continued in verse 14, and we saw His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth - and so shall we! Furthermore, the Kingdom itself is the fulfillment of the prophetic Feast of Tabernacles, the seventh and final festival in the annual cycle of the Mosaic feasts of Israel.

XXII. A Return to Mosaic Worship?

At first glance, it may seem that Millennial worship may be a return to the Mosaic system. In fact, a reading of Ezekiel 43:18-27 and 45:13-25 show that there will be blood sacrifices, just as under Moses. However, Kingdom worship will not be a return to the Mosaic system. There are many differences.


During Kingdom worship, from sabbath to sabbath, all mankind will come to bow down before Me (Isaiah 66:23). Here are three differences already: Firstly, under Moses, the Sabbath was enjoined strictly on Israel; but in the Kingdom, it will be enjoined on all mankind. Secondly, under Moses, the Sabbath was not required to be a day of worship as in the Kingdom, but a day of rest. And thirdly, it is obvious from Isaiah 66:3 that Sabbath Kingdom worship will take place in the temple; but under Moses, no part of the Sabbath was to be spent in the tabernacle or temple, but in homes: a sabbath of complete rest . . . in all your dwellings (Leviticus 23:3). Another major difference is, in the Kingdom, the combination of annual feasts required to be observed is different. Under Moses, it was seven feasts: Passover, Unleavened Bread, Firstfruits, Pentecost, Trumpets, Day of Atonement and Tabernacles; but in the Kingdom, it will be four: New Year's Day (the first of Nisan, the month that the biblical cycle of feasts begins), Passover, Unleavened Bread and Tabernacles. Notice, too: Under Moses, New Year's Day was not part of the cycle of feasts, but in the Kingdom, it will be. There are many other differences, as well.


Dr. Fruchtenbaum writes,


While there are many similarities with the sacrifices of the Mosaic Law, as there are between the sacrifices of Noah and Moses, the differences show they are not the same. It was these very differences that kept the rabbis from accepting Ezekiel into the Hebrew Canon for some time. These differences include the following. In the consecration of the altar (Mosaic: Ex. 29:1-37; Millennial: Eze. 43:18-27) there are the following differences: the Mosaic anointed the altar while the Ezekiel had no anointing; the Mosaic offered a bullock for a sin offering for all seven days while the Ezekiel offered a bullock on the first day only; the Mosaic offered no goat while the Ezekiel offers goats for the last six days; the Mosaic applied blood on the horns of the altar only while the Ezekiel applies blood on the horns, the corners, and upon the lower molding round about; for the burnt offering, the Mosaic offered a ram every day while the Ezekiel offers both a bullock and a ram every day; the Mosaic offered a ram for the consecration of the priesthood but Ezekiel has no ram for the consecration of the priesthood, only for the altar; the Mosaic had the Ark of the Covenant but the Millennial Temple will not have the Ark of the Covenant (Jer. 3:16); under the Mosaic Law, only the High Priest could enter the Holy of Holies but in Eze. 44:15-16, all priests will be able to enter; the rules of marriage found in Eze. 44:22 were applicable to only the High Priest under the Mosaic Law but in Ezekiel, they will be applicable to all priests; under the Mosaic Law, the first of Nisan was not a special holy day but will be under the Ezekiel system (Eze. 45:18); the procedure described in Eze. 45:19 differs from the Mosaic in two ways: in the animal chosen, the Mosaic had a male goat while the Ezekiel has a bullock, and in the way the animal was disposed of, the Mosaic disposed of the animal outside the camp, while the Ezekiel is inside the camp; concerning the Passover (Eze. 45:21-24), in the Mosaic, the Passover was a family affair with the head of the household performing the ritual while in the Ezekiel the Prince will perform the ritual on behalf of the nation; in the Mosaic, the Passover was a one day festival while in the Ezekiel it will last for seven days; the Mosaic offered an unblemished lamb while the Ezekiel offers a bullock; there is also a difference in the number of sacrifices offered between the Mosaic (Nu. 28:16-24) and the Ezekiel; there is also a difference in the measures of the meal offering between the Mosaic and the Ezekiel; concerning the Feast of Tabernacles (Eze. 45:25) there is a difference in the quantity of the offerings (Nu. 29:12-34) and the Ezekiel does not have the added eighth day that the Mosaic had (Nu. 29:35-38); as for the Sabbath offerings (Eze. 46:4-5), the Ezekiel requires six lambs and a ram which is more than the Mosaic (Nu. 28:9) which required only two lambs and a ram and the same will be true with the meal offering; concerning the New Moon offerings (Eze. 46:6-7), the Mosaic required two bulls, one ram, and seven lambs while the Ezekiel will require one bullock, six lambs, and one ram; there is also a difference in the daily offering (Eze. 46:13-15) since the Mosaic (Ex. 29:38-42; Nu. 28:3-4) required two lambs each day both morning and evening while the Ezekiel will require one lamb each morning and none in the evening; there is also a difference in the daily meal offering (Ex. 29:40; Nu. 28:5); in the Mosaic Law, the observance of the Feast of Tabernacles was mandatory for Jews only while under Kingdom Law it will be mandatory for both Jews and Gentiles (Zec. 14:16-21); under the Law of Moses, only Jews could be priests but under Kingdom Law, Gentiles will also serve as priests (Isa. 66:18-21). All these differences show that this is not a return to the Law of Moses but it is a new system under Kingdom Law and so it does not violate what the New Testament teaches about concerning the termination of the Law with Messiah's death. (9)


Obviously, Kingdom worship will not be a return to Mosaic worship. Yet, all of that still begs the question . . .

XXIII. Why Revert to a More Primitive Form of Worship?

21. Woman, believe Me, an hour is coming when neither in this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father. . . . 23. But an hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth; for such people the Father seeks to be His worshipers. 24. God is spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth.

~ John 4: 21-24 ~

While the Law was still in effect, Jesus told the Samaritan woman that the day is coming when true worshipers will worship neither in the Samaritan temple on Mt. Gerizim nor even in the authorized temple in Jerusalem, for the Father is not concerned about outward things and forms such as the place of worship and outward rituals, but in inward matters, namely, worship from the spirit, one's innermost being, and truth, quality of worship based on biblical understanding and carried out with a pure heart. The rigid, formalized, place-based worship under the Law was to give way to spirit-based worship in the Age of Grace.
During our Church Age, each believer is a temple, being indwelt by the Spirit (1 Corinthians 6:19), and the body of Christ is the believers' corporate temple, likewise indwelt by the Spirit (1 Corinthians 3:9,16) - but in the Kingdom, a massive physical structure will be the temple!

Why this monumental reversion in the Kingdom to a mandatory place of worship and a ritualized form of worship as in the days of Moses? To my knowledge, Scripture does not plainly say, but I think we can take some pretty good guesses:

1. Whereas the Mosaic sacrifices were types, copies and shadows of the once for all Sacrifice to come (Romans 6:10; Colossians 2:16-17; Hebrews 8:3-6; 9:24; 10:1), Kingdom sacrifices will memorialize the once for all sacrifice that took place in the past at Calvary.
2. In this day and age when bloodshed and carnage are so common that people can easily identify with the physical abuse that the Lord endured at Calvary, in the Kingdom it will not be so.

6. And the wolf will dwell with the lamb, and the leopard will lie down with the young goat, And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little boy will lead them. 7. Also the cow and the bear will graze, their young will lie down together, and the lion will eat straw like the ox. 8. The nursing child will play by the hole of the cobra, and the weaned child will put his hand on the viper's den. 9. They will not hurt or destroy in all My holy mountain, for the earth will be full of the knowledge of the LORD as the waters cover the sea.

~ Isaiah 11:6-9 ~

It will be a time when nations will hammer their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not lift up sword against nation, and never again will they learn war (Isaiah 2:4).

One can easily imagine how hard it will be for people in such an environment to relate to the physical suffering of Christ at Calvary. It is therefore likely that the blood sacrifices of Kingdom worship will serve to sensitize the multitudes to the sufferings endured by Jesus on their behalf.

3. Mandatory worship of the Lord on His throne will solidify submissiveness to His rule, uniting the peoples of the world under His rulership. (Contrast that with the fighting for supremacy among nations and factions today!) This will be especially significant in light of the fact that there will still be unbelievers in the Kingdom, and even nations that will resent His rule. Let us recall the prophesied resistance of at least some nations to His authority brought out in Zechariah 14:16-18, quoted above.
4. Requiring the families of the earth to gather in Jerusalem for worship will reinforce in the minds of all the ascendancy that the Lord has given to His people Israel among the nations in fulfillment of His promises to them despite the age-old hostility of nations to them.

XXIV. What of Other Forms of Worship Besides Temple Worship?

A. Will There be Meetings Comparable to Today's Church Meetings?

Based on the Bible's descriptions of the functions of apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors and teachers, and the necessity for church members to exercise their spiritual gifts in corporate settings, and for the necessity of partaking of the Lord's Supper corporately, it is obvious that God expects every believer in this day and age to be a member of a local church, and for every local church to meet regularly. Corporate worship in the local church of the Church Age is vastly different from the required forms of worship under Moses. It should therefore not be surprising that worship forms in the Kingdom - even apart from temple forms, which we saw will be different - may be vastly different from the forms and functions we are familiar with in the local church today. Will regular, local gatherings of believers be required in the Kingdom? If so, will they in any way resemble what the Lord expects of local churches today?

Scripture neither mandates nor prescribes comparable meetings of local believers in the Kingdom. However, there are no prohibitions against such meetings, either. We must be very careful here. There are no descriptions of five-fold ministries for the Kingdom, no mention of elders and deacons, no descriptions of spiritual gifts that need to be exercised corporately, no mandates to carry out the ordinances of baptism and the Lord's Supper or anything similar, and no prescriptions for church discipline. We do not know what the Lord may require, authorize or prohibit during such meetings, or even if He would require them, at all. However, we do know this: that the law will go forth from Zion And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem (Isaiah 2:3. Also Micah 4:2).

The words of the Lord concerning both spiritual and mundane matters will proceed from Jerusalem outward to the ends of the earth. The first wave of messengers will be Jewish (Zechariah 8:23). From there it will be Gentile to Gentile until the words of the Lord reach the ends of the earth.

Certainly there will be local civic meetings to discuss judgments of the Lord having to do with earthly matters (And He will judge between many peoples and render decisions for mighty, distant nations [Micah 4:3]), and such meetings would involve both believers and unbelievers. Similarly, one would think that there would also be localized meetings of believers to discuss spiritual matters proceeding from Jerusalem. (Consider the wealth of revelation disseminated to believers after the cross. Surely we can expect an immeasurable wealth of spiritual revelation to be disseminated by the Lord after His return!) These types of meetings would, of course, be conducted by mature overseers, and would be focused on the words of messengers. Perhaps teachers and exhorters will follow up. Furthermore, I cannot see how the Lord would look askance at the lifting up of corporate praise. Even under the Law, From the rising of the sun to its setting the name of the LORD is to be praised (Psalm 113:3); and surely prayer will take place at many or all of these meetings, as well, even as spontaneous prayer took place under Moses (Daniel 3:10) and is authorized and expected today (Acts 12:12; 1 Thessalonians 5:17). However, I must emphasize again: We must be careful to not paint the picture with too fine a brush, as Scripture doesn't!

B. What of Individual Worship?

Even under the Law there was informal, spontaneous, individual worship apart from anything required at the tabernacle or temple: 

16. After I had given the deed of purchase to Baruch the son of Neriah, then I prayed to the LORD, saying, 17. 'Ah Lord GOD! Behold, You have made the heavens and the earth by Your great power and by Your outstretched arm! Nothing is too difficult for You, 18. who shows lovingkindness to thousands, but repays the iniquity of fathers into the bosom of their children after them, O great and mighty God. The LORD of hosts is His name; 19. great in counsel and mighty in deed, whose eyes are open to all the ways of the sons of men, giving to everyone according to his ways and according to the fruit of his deeds. . . .

~ Jeremiah 32:16-22 ~

Surely, in the Kingdom, the Lord would smile upon spontaneous, informal, individual worship just as He did during the Mosaic era and as He does during our present Church Age.

Yes, there will be a reversion to Temple-based worship, but not in place of spirit and truth worship - but in addition to it. We will not lose anything in the process. We will only gain. Temple-based worship in the presence of the resurrected and glorified King of Kings and Lord of Lords will be filled with a glory we can only begin imagine!


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1. The entire We Believe statement of the Association of Messianic Congregations may be found here.

2. Fruchtenbaum, Dr. Arnold G. The Footsteps of the Messiah: A Study of the Sequence of Prophetic Events. San Antonio: Ariel Ministries, 1982. P. 455.

3. Passages speaking of the Millennial Mountain of the LORD, also called the Holy Oblation, are Isaiah 2:2-4; 27:13; 56:6-8; 66:20; Micah 4:1-2; Ezekiel 17:22-24; 20:40-41; Ezekiel 40:1-4; 45:1-8; 48:8-20. Those passages providing descriptions of the mountain are Ezekiel 40:1-4; 45:1-8; 48:8-20. An exegesis of all of these passages may be found in: Fruchtenbaum, Dr. Arnold G. The Footsteps of the Messiah: A Study of the Sequence of Prophetic Events. San Antonio: Ariel Ministries, 1982. P. 443-456.

4. Information Regarding Israel's Security. "Size Comparison Map of Israel and New Jersey." IRIS: Information Regarding Israel's Security. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Aug. 2015. <>.

5. Cooper, Dr. David L. Biblical Research Society.

6. Fruchtenbaum, Dr. Arnold G. The Footsteps of the Messiah: A Study of the Sequence of Prophetic Events. San Antonio: Ariel Ministries, 1982. P. 456-458.

7. According to Ezekiel 47 and 48, based on the calculations of Dr. Cooper.

8. Two groups are at the heart of the movement: The Temple Institute,, and The Temple Mount Faithful,

9. Fruchtenbaum, Dr. Arnold G. The Footsteps of the Messiah: A Study of the Sequence of Prophetic Events. San Antonio: Ariel Ministries, 1982. P. 462-464.

Recommended Reading

Dr. Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum
1. The Footsteps of the Messiah: A Study of the Sequence of Prophetic Events. Many consider Footsteps a landmark work in the piecing together of end-time prophecy.
2. Messianic Bible Study 002: The Jews and the Tribulation
3. Messianic Bible Study 003: The Basis of the Second Coming of the Messiah
4. Messianic Bible Study 004: The Campaign of Armageddon
5. Messianic Bible Study 010: The Rise and Fall of the Antichrist
6. Messianic Bible Study 017: The Messianic Kingdom
7. Messianic Bible Study 018: Israel and the Messianic Kingdom
8. Messianic Bible Study 028: The Olivet Discourse
9. Messianic Bible Study 039: The Rapture of the Church
10. Messianic Bible Study 062: The Feasts of Israel
11. Messianic Bible Study 067: The Seventy Sevens of Daniel
12. Messianic Bible Study 084: The Four Women of Revelation

All of Dr. Fruchtenbaum's publications are available at Ariel Ministries in various formats, many for free listening.


Dr. David L. Cooper
Cooper, D.L. (1951, July). Biblical Research Society: Dr. David L. Cooper. Retrieved from See What We Believe, section "The Millennial Reign of Christ."


Thomas Paul Simmons
Simmons/Providence Baptist Ministries, T.P. (2010). Chapter 42 - The Millennium. Retrieved from


Norman Manzon
The Faithful Remnant of Israel

The Prophetic Feasts of Israel


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                              Scriptures used by the author are generally in the New King James or New American Standard translations.
                             Scriptures in quotations by Dr. Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum are in the American Standard Version.
                                 Scriptures quoted by others may be in other translations.


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